Cytokines and Coronary Artery Disease: The State of the ArtEl-Menyar, Ayman A. MBChB, MSc, FRCPCritical Pathways in Cardiology: A Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine: June 2008 - Volume 7 - Issue 2 - pp 139-151 doi: 10.1097/HPC.0b013e31816713d9 Original Article Abstract Author Information Initiation and progression of coronary atherosclerosis has been associated with inflammation and cytokines balance. The objective of this study is to understand the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology and management of coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease has been revisited with revision of the pertinent published articles in the Medline, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research from 1987 to 2007. The 2 groups of cytokines (proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory) have been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques. The balance between the 2 groups may reflect the intensity of occult plaque inflammation and the vulnerability to rupture. Multiple studies have determined that a diverse set of proinflammatory biomarkers can furnish prognostic information beyond the traditional risk factors. Inflammatory responses after coronary revascularization are known to play key role in vascular lesion formation early in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Clinical utilization of cytokines remains promising yet incompletely explored and need more studies. From the Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar. Reprints: Dr Ayman Ahmed El-Menyar, MBBCH, MSc, FRCP (Glasg), Weill Cornell Medical College, State of Qatar and Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery HMC, Box 3050, Doha, Qatar. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.