Initiation and progression of coronary atherosclerosis has been associated with inflammation and cytokines balance. The objective of this study is to understand the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology and management of coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease has been revisited with revision of the pertinent published articles in the Medline, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research from 1987 to 2007. The 2 groups of cytokines (proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory) have been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques. The balance between the 2 groups may reflect the intensity of occult plaque inflammation and the vulnerability to rupture. Multiple studies have determined that a diverse set of proinflammatory biomarkers can furnish prognostic information beyond the traditional risk factors. Inflammatory responses after coronary revascularization are known to play key role in vascular lesion formation early in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Clinical utilization of cytokines remains promising yet incompletely explored and need more studies.