Congenital and acquired torsion occur in the limbs of domestic animals. Congenital abnormalities are of clinical significance in foals; they are also seen in calves whose dams have ingested certain toxic plants that contain te-ratogenic agents. Acquired torsional deformities are most common in foals, but are also observed in adult horses, dogs, and llamas. Acquired rotational deformities are almost always associated with angular limb deformities. The clinical consequence of torsional deformities is the early development of degenerative joint disease.
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