Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the increased risk of mortality among patients with bleeding complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: The study included 1510 patients with periprocedural bleeding complications of the 14 180 patients undergoing PCI. Bleeding was defined and scaled according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. The main outcome was all-cause mortality at 1 year after PCI.
Results: Of the 1510 patients with bleeding within the first 30 days of PCI, 104 patients (6.9%) died during the first year after PCI. One-year survival according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium classes was as follows: 96.4% (22 deaths) in class 1, 94.7% (12 deaths) in class 2, 91.0% (42 deaths) in class 3a, 85.4% (23 deaths) in class 3b, and 58.3% (five deaths) in class 3c (P<0.001). The Cox proportional hazards model identified bleeding severity [hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.25–1.93 for one class increase in bleeding scale, P<0.001], bleeding site [HR=1.79 (1.18–2.71) for nonaccess vs. access site, P=0.006], elevated troponin levels [HR=1.66 (1.09–2.53), P=0.018], multivessel disease [HR=2.15 (1.01–4.56), P=0.047], C-reactive protein [HR=1.04 (1.01–1.06) for 5 mg/l increase, P=0.002], anemia [HR=2.27 (1.39–3.71) for 4 g/dl decrease in hemoglobin, P=0.001], and platelet count [HR=1.11 (1.02–1.21) for 50×109/l increase in platelet count, P=0.013] as independent associates of mortality. Age (P=0.072) and reduced estimated creatinine clearance (P=0.066) were close to reaching statistical significance as associates of mortality.
Conclusion: Among patients with peri-PCI bleeding, the characteristics of bleeding itself and the cardiovascular risk profile underlie the increased risk for poor outcome after PCI.
aDeutsches Herzzentrum, München
b1.Medizinische Klinik rechts der Isar, Technische Universität
cDZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
Correspondence to Gjin Ndrepepa, MD, Deutsches Herzzentrum, Lazarettstrasse 36, 80636 München, Germany Tel: +49 89 12181535; fax: +49 89 12184053; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received February 19, 2014
Received in revised form March 28, 2014
Accepted April 2, 2014