Background: This study sought to examine whether circulatory levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers [vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1), sE-selectin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1)] are associated with occurrence of late or very late stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention with sirolimus-eluting stent implantation, and to assess the possible influence of genetic variants of these proteins on ST.
Methods: Serum levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, vWF, t-PA and PAI-1 were measured, and polymorphisms of vWF (-1234C/T, -1185A/G and -1051G/A), t-PA (insertion/deletion) and PAI-1 genes (4G/5G) were determined in 41 patients who experienced at least one episode of late or very late ST. Eighty-two patients without ST randomly selected from the same study period served as controls.
Results: Serum levels of vWF, sVCAM-1and sICAM-1 were significantly increased in patients with ST than in controls (all P<0.01). No significant difference was observed in the genotype and allele distribution of the vWF, t-PA and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that vWF, sVCAM-1, discontinuation of clopidogrel therapy and left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50% were independent determinants of late ST.
Conclusion: Increased serum vWF and sVCAM-1 levels are associated with late ST, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of late or very late ST.