Purpose: To determine the incidence, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious endophthalmitis after Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation.
Methods: Retrospective, consecutive case series. Chart review of 105 patients (126 eyes) who had KPro implantation at Cincinnati Eye Institute between November 2004 and November 2010 and who were followed up for at least 1 month (range, 1 month to 66 months; mean 25 months) revealed 3 cases who developed infectious endophthalmitis.
Results: One patient had a history of congenital glaucoma, and 2 patients had Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Two had KPro implantation for penetrating keratoplasty failure and 1 had necrosis of a previous KPro cornea. The incidence of endophthalmitis was 2.4%. All patients wore a contact lens and were on vancomycin and a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone (moxifloxacin). Vitreous fluid cultures yielded Ochrobactrum anthropi, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida albicans. All patients received intravitreal amphotericin, vancomycin, and/or ceftazidime. Topical and oral antiinfective agents were tailored based on sensitivities. One patient required KPro removal and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Vision did not recover for 2 patients who presented with vision decreased to light perception. One patient, who presented with decreased vision of 20/400, recovered to 20/60.
Conclusions: Infectious endophthalmitis is a devastating complication that can occur after Boston KPro implantation even with prophylactic vancomycin, a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, and a therapeutic contact lens. Fungal and gram-negative organisms are a growing cause for concern. Further study is needed on optimal prophylaxis regimens, including the use of antifungals, especially for high-risk eyes, such as those with autoimmune cicatrizing disease.