Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ocular surface disease (OSD) in patients with glaucoma using topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering therapy.
Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were on a topical IOP-lowering medication regimen. Enrolled patients completed the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and OSDI scores (0-100, with 0 representing no symptoms) were calculated for each patient. Medical history, demographics, and concomitant medication information were also collected.
Results: Overall, 630 patients from 10 sites participated. Of these, 305 patients (48.4%) had an OSDI score indicating either mild (n = 134, 21.3%), moderate (n = 84, 13.3%), or severe (n = 87, 13.8%) OSD symptoms. OSDI scores were significantly different between patients with and without a prior diagnosis of dry eye syndrome (25.2 ± 15.4 vs 15.4 ± 15.8, respectively; P = 0.0036) and between patients who did and did not use artificial tears at the time of study participation (23.0 ± 15.6 vs 15.3 ± 15.8, respectively; P = 0.0046). Mean OSDI scores varied significantly with the number of topical IOP-lowering medications used, with higher (more severe) OSDI scores in patients using multiple IOP-lowering medications. Specifically, patients on a single medication had a mean OSDI score of 12.9 ± 13.1, which was significantly lower than those of patients on 2 (16.7 ± 17.0; P = 0.007) or 3 medications (19.4 ± 18.1; P = 0.0001).
Conclusions: OSD is prevalent among medically treated patients with glaucoma. The severity of OSD symptoms is positively correlated to the number of IOP-lowering medications used.