The mechanism of ocular surface allergy in the forms of atopic conjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis has been highlighted by specific functions of chemokines. In the context of late-phase allergic responses, these molecules have key roles in recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Their interaction with ligands is redundantly regulated; however, results from strategies to block subsets of chemokines have revealed unexpected or highly organized roles of these mediators. Exemplified by analyses of CCL11 function, current concepts of ocular allergy support CCL11 as central mediator. We emphasize the functions as modulator of mast cell activation/differentiation. With the prospect of understanding these functions, new modalities of drugs specifically developed to target CCL11/CCR3 interaction have been discussed.
From the *Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan; †Department of Immunology, University College London, Institutes of Ophthalmology and Child Health, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; and ‡Pharmaceuticals Research Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Co, Yokohama, Japan.
Reprints: Dai Miyazaki, MD, Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, 36-1 Nishimachi, Yonago 683-8504, Japan (e-mail: email@example.com).