Summary. The history of lamellar keratoplasty (LK) surgery spans over 100 years, and the advantages of lamellar surgery have long been known. The surgery is usually used for tectonic purposes; however, new techniques and technology over the past 25 years have expanded the applications of LK in optical rehabilitation. Instrumentation such as viscoelastics, diamond knives, ultrasonic pachymetry, artificial anterior chambers, advanced microkeratomes, and the excimer laser have enhanced our ability to work more safely in the tedious microsurgical environment of the lamellar procedure. Advances in surgical techniques such as deep lamellar anterior keratoplasty and deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty have expanded the application of lamellar surgery to endothelial replacement and have achieved visual results approaching those of penetrating keratoplasty while reducing the rate of rejection and improving the long-term graft stability. As research continues, LK promises to be an increasingly important option for the corneal surgeon.