History of Vocalizations and Arm Flailing
A 17-year-old boy with a history of vocalizations and arm flailing, which started at 6 years of age, followed by multiple tics, including wrist flexion, feet cracking, throat clearing, shoulder popping, and neck jerking. After a fluctuating course with an almost quiescent 2-year period, neck jerking resurfaced. The movements caused degenerative disc disease and pain. Treatment with aripiprazole helped, but the movements still caused disruption at school and made driving less safe.
Alberto J. Espay, MD, MSc, FAAN
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 19(5, Movement Disorders):1287-1311, October 2013