Alberto J. Espay, MD, MSc, FAAN, Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Director of Clinical Research, James J. and Joan A. Gardner Family Center for Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
*Dr Espay is supported by the K23 career development award (NIMH, 1K23MH092735) and has received grant support from CleveMed/Great Lakes Neurotechnologies, the Davis Phinney Foundation, and the Michael J Fox Foundation; personal compensation as a consultant/scientific advisory board member for Solvay (now Abbvie), Chelsea Therapeutics, TEVA, Impax, Merz, Solstice Neurosciences, Eli Lilly, and US WorldMeds; royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Cambridge; and honoraria from Novartis, UCB, TEVA, the American Academy of Neurology, and the Movement Disorders Society. Dr Espay serves as associate editor of Movement Disorders and Frontiers in Movement Disorders and on the editorial board of The European Neurological Journal.
†Dr Espay discusses the use of medications currently recommended for the treatment of myoclonus, none of which have been US Food and Drug Administration–approved.
Bastiaan R. Bloem, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology, Radbaud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands
*Dr Bloem serves as a consultant for Boehringer Ingelheim and GlaxoSmithKline and receives research grants from Abbott Laboratories, GlaxoSmithKline, and Medtronic, Inc.
† Dr Bloem discusses the unlabeled use of donepezil and methylphenidate as cognitive enhancers and stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus as a surgical indication for the treatment of gait and postural disorders.
Allison Brashear, MD, MBA, FAAN
Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
*Dr Brashear has served as a consultant for Allergen, Ipsen, and Xenoport; receives book royalties from Demos; and has provided one expert witness testimony on her patient in 2013.
†Dr Brashear discusses the unlabeled use of botulinum toxin for spasticity.
Laura Bushong, BA, CPC, CEMC
Reimbursement Analyst and Coding Lead, Department of Neurology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
*Ms Bushong reports no disclosure.
†Ms Bushong discusses the unlabeled use of botulinum toxin for spasticity.
David Charles, MD
Professor and Vice-Chairman of Neurology, Chief Medical Officer, Vanderbilt Neuroscience Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
*Vanderbilt University receives income from grants and contracts with Allergan, Ipsen, Medtronic, and Merz for research and educational programs led by Dr Charles. Dr Charles receives income from Allergan, Ipsen, Medtronic, and Merz for consulting services. Dr Charles has received income from the Davis Phinney Foundation and from serving as an expert witness.
†Dr Charles discusses the unlabeled use of deep brain stimulation in the early disease course of Parkinson disease.
Robert Chen, MA, MBBChir, MSc, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine (Neurology) and Catherine Manson Chair in Movement Disorders, University of Toronto and Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*Dr Chen has received personal compensation for activities with Allergan, Inc; EMD Serono, Inc; Medtronic, Inc; Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC; the Movement Disorders Society; University of California, Los Angeles; and the University of Pittsburgh. Dr Chen has provided expert testimony and affidavit in welding-related litigations. Dr Chen receives research support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, Medtronic, Inc, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation.
†Dr Chen discusses the use of medications currently recommended for the treatment of myoclonus, none of which have been US Food and Drug Administration–approved.
Guenther Deuschl, MD, PhD, FAAN
Head and Chairman, Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
*Dr Deuschl serves as a consultant for Medtronic, Inc, Novartis, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd and receives royalties from Thieme. Dr Deuschl’s employer receives research support from Medtronic, Inc.
†Dr Deuschl discusses the use of currently recommended drugs for the treatment of tremors, of which only some are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as antitremor agents.
Andrew P. Duker, MD
Assistant Professor of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
*Dr Duker has served as a consultant for Merz Pharmaceuticals and US World Meds and received honoraria from UCB.
†Dr Duker reports no disclosure.
Mark J. Edwards, MD, MBBS, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Neurology, University College London Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
*Dr Edwards is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health Research, Parkinson’s UK, UK Dystonia Society, and the Bachmann Strauss Foundation. Dr Edwards receives royalties from his book Oxford Specialist Handbook of Parkinson Disease and Other Movement Disorders, serves on the editorial board of Movement Disorders Journal, and has received honoraria from the Movement Disorders Society and UCB Pharma.
†Dr Edwards reports no disclosure.
Alfonso Fasano, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*Dr Fasano serves as a speaker for Abbott Laboratories, Chiesi, Medtronic, Inc, and UCB, and receives research support from Afar and Medtronic, Inc.
†Dr Fasano discusses the unlabeled use of donepezil and methylphenidate as cognitive enhancers and stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus as a surgical indication for the treatment of gait and postural disorders.
James K. Fleming, MD, MSc
Neurology Resident, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
*Dr Fleming reports no disclosure.
†Dr Fleming discusses the unlabeled use of deep brain stimulation in the early disease course of Parkinson disease.
Christine Klein, MD
Schilling Professor of Neurogenetics, Head of the Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
*Dr Klein serves as a consultant for Centogene and as a speaker for Boehringer Ingelheim and Orion Corporation. Dr Klein serves on the editorial board of Neurology and as a course faculty member for the American Academy of Neurology. Dr Klein is the recipient of a career development award from the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation; receives support from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Possehl Foundation, and Volkswagen Foundation; and has received institutional support from the University of Lübeck for genetics research.
†Dr Klein reports no disclosure.
Irene Litvan, MD, FAAN
Director of the Movement Disorder Center, Tasch Endowed Professor in Parkinson’s Disease Research, Professor of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
*Dr Litvan has served as a member of the Abbot/Abbvie, Biogen, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, and Pfizer scientific advisory boards and was a consultant for Novartis. Dr Litvan receives grant support from the NIH (R01AG024040) and CurePSP.
†Dr Litvan reports no disclosure.
Mario Manto, MD, PhD
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
*Dr Manto receives honoraria from Cambridge University Press and Springer Science+Business Media, and receives research grants from the Communauté Française, the European Commission, and the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique Belgium. Dr Manto serves as editor-in-chief of The Cerebellum and as associate editor of the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation.
†Dr Manto reports no disclosure.
Davide Martino, MD, PhD
Clinical Lecturer, Queen Mary University of London; Consultant in Neurology, South London NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom
*Dr Martino reports no disclosure.
†Dr Martino discusses the unlabeled use of multiple therapies for the treatment of Tourette syndrome. In the United States, only pimozide and haloperidol are labeled for the treatment of Tourette syndrome.
Jonathan W. Mink, MD, PhD, FAAN
Professor of Neurology, Chief of Child Neurology, Vice Chair of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
*Dr Mink serves on the data and safety monitoring board of Edison Pharmaceuticals, Inc, serves as a consultant to Medtronic, Inc and as an associate editor of Neurology, and performs occasional legal record review.
†Dr Mink discusses the unlabeled use of multiple therapies for the treatment of Tourette syndrome. In the United States, only pimozide and haloperidol are labeled for the treatment of Tourette syndrome.
Francesca Morgante, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Neurology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
*Dr Morgante serves on the scientific advisory board of Allergan and serves as a speaker for Chiesi, Lundbeck, Medtronic, Novartis, and UCB. Dr Morgante serves on the editorial advisory board of Frontiers in Movement Disorders.
†Dr Morgante reports no disclosure.
Massimo Pandolfo, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
*Dr Pandolfo receives unrestricted support for conferences from Santhera Pharmaceuticals and royalty payments from Athena Diagnostics, Inc, for Methods to Diagnose Friedreich Ataxia. Dr Pandolfo serves on the drug safety monitoring board of and receives research support from Repligen Corporation.
†Dr Pandolfo discusses experimental therapeutics for the treatment of inherited ataxias and immunomodulatory treatments for immune-mediated ataxias.
Ruth H. Walker, MB, ChB, PhD, FAAN
Director, Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York; Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York
*Dr Walker reports no disclosure.
†Dr Walker discusses the unlabeled use of deep brain stimulation, tetrabenazine, and antipsychotic and anticonvulsant medications for the treatment of chorea.
David R. Williams, MD, MBBS, PhD, FRACP
Associate Professor, Van Cleef Roet Centre for Neurological Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
*Dr Williams serves on the scientific advisory board of Ipsen and receives research support from the National Health and Medical Research Council.
†Dr Williams reports no disclosure.
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTION WRITERS
D. Joanne Lynn, MD, FAAN
Associate Dean for Student Life and Clinical Professor, Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio
*Dr Lynn holds stock or stock options greater than 5% of the company or more than $10,000 in value in Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Varian Medical Systems.
†Dr Lynn reports no disclosure.
Joseph E. Safdieh, MD
Vice Chairman for Education and Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York
*†Dr Safdieh reports no disclosure.