CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology:
doi: 10.1212/01.CON.0000433298.91703.ed
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Contributors

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*Relationship Disclosure

†Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure

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CONTRIBUTORS

Robert J. Fox, MD, FAAN, Guest Editor

Staff Neurologist, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

*Dr Fox serves as a consultant for Allozyne, Inc, Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Biogen Idec, Novartis, Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and Teva Neuroscience, and receives research support from Novartis.

Dr Fox discusses mitigation strategies for alemtuzumab, which is not currently US FDA-approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Alexander D. Rae-Grant, MD, FRCP(C), Guest Editor

Staff Neurologist, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

*Dr Rae-Grant has served as a speaker for Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Teva Neuroscience.

Dr Rae-Grant discusses the unlabeled use of carbamazepine, phenytoin, gabapentin, botulinum toxin injections, and thiamine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms.

Laura J. Balcer, MD, MSCE, FAAN

Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

*Dr Balcer serves as a consultant for Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Dr Balcer reports no disclosure.

Robert A. Bermel, MD

Staff Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Neurology, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

*Dr Bermel serves as a consultant for Astellas Pharma Inc, Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Teva Neuroscience. Dr Bermel receives research support from Novartis, which funds an observational study on depression in MS, and from the National MS Society, which funds a study of imaging measures of repair and recovering in the visual pathway.

Dr Bermel reports no disclosure.

Francois Bethoux, MD

Director, Rehabilitation Services, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio

*Dr Bethoux has served as a speaker for Acorda Therapeutics, Allergan, Inc, Biogen Idec, and Medtronic, Inc and serves on scientific advisory boards for Acorda Therapeutics and Merz Pharma. Dr Bethoux serves on the editorial board of International Journal of MS Care, published by The Consortium of MS Centers. Dr Bethoux has received research support from Acorda Therapeutics for studies and clinical trials of dalfampridine; from Innovative Neurotronics, Inc, for a trial of the WalkAide device; and from Merz Pharma for a study of Xeomin.

Dr Bethoux discusses the unlabeled use of benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, and botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of lower extremity spasticity; antiepileptics and tricyclic antidepressants for neuropathic pain; and amantadine, modafinil, and armodafinil for fatigue related to multiple sclerosis.

Tanuja Chitnis, MD

Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director, Partners Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

*Dr Chitnis serves as a consultant for Biogen Idec, Novartis, and Teva Neuroscience, and receives research support from Merck Serono and grants from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Dr Chitnis discusses the unlabeled use of disease-modifying therapies for children with multiple sclerosis.

Mark S. Freedman, MSc, MD, FAAN, FANA, FRCP(C)

Professor of Neurology, University of Ottawa; Director, Multiple Sclerosis Research Unit, The Ottawa Hospital; Senior Scientist, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

*Dr Freedman has received honoraria from or serves as a consultant for Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bayer HealthCare, Biogen Idec, Celegene Corporation, EMD Canada, Glycominds Ltd, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, and Teva Canada. Dr Freedman serves on the advisory boards or other similar boards of Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bayer HealthCare, Biogen Idec, Celegene Corporation, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, and Teva Canada Innovation. Dr Freedman receives research or educational grants from Bayer HealthCare and Genzyme Corporation.

Dr Freedman discusses the unlabeled use of laquinimod, alemtuzumab, and ocrelizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Heather Hanwell, PhD

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

*Dr Hanwell serves as a speaker for the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada and Teva Neuroscience.

Dr Hanwell reports no disclosure.

Todd J. Janus, PhD, MD, FAAN

Attending Physician, Director, Iowa Health Systems Physicians and Clinics Center for Comprehensive MS Care (IHSP and CCFCMSC) (NMSS certified), Des Moines, Iowa

*Dr Janus has served as a consultant for Biogen Idec, holds 12,000 shares in NewLink Genetics Corporation, and receives research support for clinical trials from Acorda Therapeutics, Inc, Biogen Idec, and Genzyme Corporation.

Dr Janus reports no disclosure.

Ilana B. Katz Sand, MD

Assistant Professor and Associate Medical Director, Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York

*Dr Katz Sand’s fellowship was supported in part by a Sylvia Lowry grant from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Dr Katz Sand has received research support from Acorda Therapeutics for an investigator-initiated study.

Dr Katz Sand reports no disclosure.

Eric C. Klawiter, MD, MSc

Assistant Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Neurologist, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

*Dr Klawiter has received consulting fees from Genzyme Corporation and Teva Neuroscience and research support for clinical trials from Roche.

Dr Klawiter reports no disclosure.

Eran Klein, MD, PhD

Adjunct Assistant Professor, Oregon Health and Sciences University; Neurology Staff Physician, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

*†Dr Klein reports no disclosure.

Fred D. Lublin, MD, FAAN, FANA

Saunders Family Professor of Neurology and Director of Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York

*Dr Lublin has consulting agreements with and/or serves on the advisory boards or data and safety monitoring boards of Acorda Therapeutics, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Biogen Idec, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Celgene Corporation, Coronado Biosciences, EMD Serono, Inc, F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd, Genentech, Inc, Genzyme Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc, MedImmune, LLC, Novartis Corporation, Pfizer Inc, Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Revalesio Corporation, Sanofi-Aventis, and Teva Pharmaceuticals. Dr Lublin is the co-chief editor of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Diseases, owns stock in Cognition Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and reviews medicolegal issues. Dr Lublin receives research support from Acorda Therapeutics, Biogen Idec, Celgene Corporation, Genzyme Corporation, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the NIH, Novartis Corporation, Sanofi-Aventis, and Teva Pharmaceuticals.

Dr Lublin reports no disclosure.

Claudia F. Lucchinetti, MD, FAAN

Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

*Dr Lucchinetti holds a patent for aquaporin-4–associated antibodies for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica; receives royalties from Elsevier for the publication of Blue Books of Neurology: Multiple Sclerosis; and receives research support from Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, and the NIH.

Dr Lucchinetti reports no disclosure.

Ruth Ann Marrie, MD, PhD

Associate Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

*Dr Marrie receives research funding from Sanofi-Aventis for a clinical trial and peer-reviewed research grants from Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, and Public Health Agency of Canada.

Dr Marrie reports no disclosure.

Daniel Ontaneda, MD, MS

Staff Neurologist, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

*Dr Ontaneda has served as a consultant or speaker for Acorda Therapeutics, Biogen Idec, and Novartis, and receives research support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and the NIH.

Dr Ontaneda discusses mitigation strategies for alemtuzumab, which is not currently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Istvan Pirko, MD, FAAN

Associate Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

*Dr Pirko serves as the clinical editor of Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine and receives research support from the NIH.

Dr Pirko reports no disclosure.

Bogdan F. Gh. Popescu, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor and Canada Research Chair Tier II in Multiple Sclerosis Research, Deparment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cameco MS Neuroscience Research Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

*Dr Popescu has served as a speaker for Teva Canada Innovation and receives research support from the Canada Research Chairs program and the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation.

Dr Popescu reports no disclosure.

Andrew J. Solomon, MD

Assistant Professor of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine and Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont

*†Dr Solomon reports no disclosure.

Brian G. Weinshenker, MD, FRCP(C), FAAN

Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

*Dr Weinshenker serves on the data and safety monitoring board of Biogen Idec and Novartis and serves as a consultant regarding neuromyelitis optica therapeutics for Asahi Kasei Medical Co, Ltd, Elan Corporation, and Novartis. Dr Weinshenker receives royalties for licensed technology for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica from RSR Limited, and receives research funding from Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation.

Dr Weinshenker discusses the unlabeled uses of corticosteroids and plasma exchange for the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica; IV immunoglobulin for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; and azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, mitoxantrone, methotrexate, and eculizumab for neuromyelitis optica.

Dean M. Wingerchuk, MD, MSc, FRCP(C), FAAN

Professor of Neurology, Vice-Chair for Clinical Research, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona

*Dr Wingerchuk receives research support from Alexion, Genentech, Genzyme Corporation, Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and Terumo BCT, Inc.

Dr Wingerchuk discusses the unlabeled uses of corticosteroids and plasma exchange for the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica; IV immunoglobulin for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; and azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, mitoxantrone, methotrexate, and eculizumab for neuromyelitis optica.

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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTION WRITERS

Eduardo E. Benarroch, MD, DSci, FAAN

Professor of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

*Dr Benarroch serves as a section editor for Neurology.

Dr Benarroch reports no disclosure.

Joseph E. Safdieh, MD

Associate Professor of Neurology (Education), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York

*Dr Safdieh serves as a consultant for Pfizer Inc.

Dr Safdieh reports no disclosure.

Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Neurology.

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