Purpose of Review: This article provides an overview of movement disorders that present in childhood. Key clinical features are discussed, and a brief guide to management strategies is provided. Recent advances in the field of pediatric movement disorders are also a focus of the article.
Recent Findings: Advances in genetic technologies and cell biology have contributed greatly to the elucidation of underlying disease mechanisms in childhood movement disorders. This article discusses the expanding spectrum of both genetic and acquired movement disorders that present in childhood, including benign, acquired, genetic, and psychogenic movement disorders.
Summary: Movement disorders in childhood comprise a wide spectrum of both genetic and acquired diseases, ranging from benign self-limiting conditions to more progressive phenotypes associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Elucidation of the underlying cause is achieved through accurate history, detailed clinical examination, review of video footage (including home videos), and, where appropriate, neuroimaging and laboratory investigations. Early accurate diagnosis will facilitate the instigation of appropriate management strategies.
Address correspondence to Dr Manju A. Kurian, Room 111, Level 1 Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, University College London, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Relationship Disclosure: Dr Kurian receives research/grant support from Gracious Heart Charity and Rosetrees (IPAAK/515006), Great Ormond Street Hospital Children’s Charity (507837), Neurodegeneration With Brain Iron Accumulation Disorders Association (5150081), and a Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellowship (WT098524MA). Dr Dale has received personal compensation for serving on the editorial advisory board of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders and the editorial boards of the European Journal of Paediatric Neurology and Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, and on the scientific advisory board for the Queensland Children’s Medical Research Institute. Dr Dale has received honoraria for speaking engagements as well as publishing royalties from Biogen Inc and Bristol-Myers-Squibb and has received research support from Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia and the National Health and Medical Research Council.
Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure: Drs Kurian and Dale report no disclosures.
Supplemental digital content: Videos accompanying this article are cited in the text as Supplemental Digital Content. Videos may be accessed by clicking on links provided in the HTML, PDF, and app versions of this article; the URLs are provided in the print version. Video legends begin on page 1182.