Purpose of Review:: This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of neurosarcoidosis.
Recent Findings:: The broad range of clinical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis has recently expanded to include painful small fiber neuropathy. Although definitive diagnosis remains a challenge, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG-PET) scan and high-resolution CT allow for improved detection of systemic sarcoidosis. In addition, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration provides a less invasive means of tissue confirmation of systemic sarcoidosis than mediastinoscopy. Although not standardized, treatment strategies for neurosarcoidosis now commonly include tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists in combination with corticosteroids and other cytotoxic agents for patients with severe disease.
Summary:: Advances in the diagnosis and management of neurosarcoidosis may benefit the patient and clinician faced with this multifaceted disease.