This review focuses on the recommendations for management of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, diet, physical activity, and lifestyle choices commonly encountered in neurologic practice. Specific studies, including those relevant to lipid targets, blood pressure targets, and adherence to medications after stroke, are reviewed.
In addition to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, this review discusses sleep apnea, diet, physical activity, and other novel risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Recent studies confirm that pharmacologic strategies to achieve aggressive targets for lipid and blood pressure lowering have significant impact on recurrent stroke risk.
Optimal secondary prevention strategies can prevent as much as 80% of all recurrent strokes.
Address correspondence to Dr Shyam Prabhakaran, 710 North Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1417, Chicago, IL 60611, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Relationship Disclosure: Dr Prabhakaran has served as an author of UpToDate, and has received research support as a principle investigator from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the American Stroke Association. Dr Chong reports no disclosure.
Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure: Drs Prabhakaran and Chong report no disclosures.