Purpose of Review: This review discusses the various causes of primary hypersomnias with emphasis on clinical recognition, diagnosis, and treatment options.
Recent Findings: Narcolepsy is probably the most fascinating syndrome causing excessive daytime sleepiness. With increasing understanding of the hypocretin/orexin pathways and the neurotransmitters that subserve the role of wakefulness and sleep, newer therapeutic modalities with promising results are being investigated and opening new frontiers in the treatment of this rare but devastating disease.
Summary: This article reviews the primary hypersomnias of central origin. Where possible, clinical cases that highlight and explain the clinical syndromes are included. Treatment modalities and future directions are also discussed to help the clinician identify and treat the underlying disorder.