Acute and chronic renal disease is prevalent in hospitalized and ambulatory patient populations. Most patients with acute or chronic renal disease exhibit some degree of neurologic dysfunction affecting the CNS, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may be a direct consequence of the uremic state or a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of common central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction as it relates to renal disease may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention and improved outcomes. This review will summarize the most frequently encountered manifestations of acute and chronic renal disease, organized with respect to their occurrence as a direct consequence of advanced renal dysfunction or renal replacement therapy.