Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the quintessential neurologic disorder from which to understand the principles of afferent and efferent neuro-ophthalmology. Perhaps with the exception of stroke, no other disorder is associated with nearly every sign and symptom of abnormalities targeting the visual system and the ocular motor apparatus. This focused review will underscore the most common syndromes and their derivative signs and symptoms that affect vision as a consequence of MS.
Relationship Disclosure: Ms Frohman and Dr Graves have nothing to disclose. Dr Balcer has received personal compensation for consultant or advisory board activities from Bayer and Biogen Idec. Dr Galetta has received personal compensation for speaking engagements from Biogen Idec and Teva Neuroscience. Dr Frohman has received personal compensation for speaking engagements or consultant activities from Abbott Laboratories; Athena Diagnostics, Inc.; Biogen Idec; and Teva Neuroscience.
Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure: Ms Frohman and Drs Graves, Balcer, Galetta, and Frohman have nothing to disclose.