Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. The lifetime risk of developing epilepsy is 4%. Approximately 90% of the incident cases in adults have partial epilepsy. The initial response to medication is of prognostic importance. Patients with symptomatic neurologic disease, foreign-tissue lesion, or developmental delay are less likely to be rendered seizure free. The goal of treatment is to render the individual seizure free. Many patients with partial epilepsy will not attain a seizure remission with antiepileptic drug therapy. Epilepsy surgery is an effective and safe alternative form of therapy for selected patients with intractable partial epilepsy. Electronic stimulation is being considered for patients with partial seizures who are not candidates for a focal cortical resection.
Relationship Disclosure: Dr Cascino has received personal compensation for serving on the editorial board of Neurology. Dr Cascino has received research support from NeuroPace, Inc., and in the form of a grant from the National Institutes of Health. Dr Theodore has received an honorarium from Elsevier for for serving as Co-Editor-in-Chief of Epilepsy Research. Dr Theodore or one of his immediate family members holds stock or stock options in General Electric Company. Dr Theodore's salary and research are funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health.
Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure: Dr Cascino has nothing to disclose. Dr Theodore discusses the unlabeled use of PET ligands for neuroimaging neurotransmitter receptors.