Neuroimaging has become increasingly important in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of dementia. Structural imaging with MRI and functional imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT are increasingly used to aid in the differential diagnosis and early detection of dementia. Imaging techniques can also track disease progression over time and monitor treatment effects. The most important development in the field over the last decade is the ability to image amyloid in the brain. This technique will revolutionize patient management and care. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2007;13(2):180-203.