Research in animal models has implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) in the control of food intake. Until now, these findings have been not replicated in humans. Here we describe a 22-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and no prior neurological or psychiatric history. Her clinical course was marked by successive eating disorders: anorexia followed by hyperphagia. We propose that, much as they do in other animals, NMDARs in humans interact with the neuroendocrine, homeostatic, and reward systems controlling food intake in the central and peripheral nervous system structures related to feeding and satiety.