Purpose of review: Despite the controversy surrounding the benefits of nephron-sparing surgery, multiple absolute indications for nephron-sparing surgery still exist, including the classic indications of hereditary and bilateral kidney tumors.
Recent findings: Multiple genetic mutations have been identified which lead to hereditary kidney cancer conditions. These are briefly reviewed because the surgical management of hereditary kidney tumors depends on the genetic and histologic subtypes involved. Clear understanding of these hereditary conditions is crucial for proper surgical management of these tumors.
Summary: Complex partial nephrectomy for multiple renal tumors, or multiplex partial nephrectomy, requires not only exceptional surgical skills but expertise of numerous nonsurgical methodologies, such as hands-on intraoperative ultrasonography and interpretation of multiple imaging modalities. In addition, multidisciplinary management is crucial for optimal outcomes in patient care. This review evaluates the most advanced surgical techniques and perioperative management required to successfully care for these challenging cases.