To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation.
Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization.
Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery were reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy.
aDepartment of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
bDepartment of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainsville, Florida, USA
cVeterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, California, USA
Correspondence to Joseph C. Liao, MD, 300 Pasteur Dr, Room S-387, Stanford, CA 94305-5118, USA. Tel: +1 650 858 3916; fax: +1 650 849 0319; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org