Genetic variability and transplantationMarder, Brad; Schröppel, Bernd; Murphy, BarbaraCurrent Opinion in Urology: March 2003 - Volume 13 - Issue 2 - pp 81-89 Renal medicine and renal transplantation Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances within the area of genetic polymorphisms with a specific emphasis on renal transplantation, and to discuss the potential clinical applications. Recent findings: Due to recent advances in molecular techniques, there has been an abundance of publications describing genetic variability in molecules relevant to transplant outcome. Many studies are now demonstrating associations between polymorphisms in these candidate genes and outcomes in organ transplantation. Summary: These studies emphasize the potential role of genetic variability in transplantation, and provide the rationale for large prospective studies to clearly define the potential benefits of genotyping in the risk stratification of transplant recipients. Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA Correspondence to Barbara Murphy MB BAO Bch FRCPI, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1243, New York, NY 10029, USA Tel: +1 212 659 9381; fax: +1 212 849 2434; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abbreviations ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme CCR: CC chemokine receptor CXCR: CXC chemokine receptor CX3CR-1: fractalkine receptor CTLA-4: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 ICAM: intracellular adhesion molecule MCP: monocyte chemoattractant protein PECAM-1: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism TNF: tumor necrosis factor VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.