Purpose of review: To introduce the updated Banff schema for antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection and related revisions to definitions within this schema agreed upon during and immediately subsequent to the 2013 Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology.
Recent findings: The original Banff schema for diagnosis of acute and chronic, active antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in renal allografts, formulated at the 2001 and 2007 Banff Conferences, has been of great assistance to pathologists and clinicians faced with an increasing awareness of the role of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs) in producing graft injury. This schema requires histologic (primarily microvascular inflammation and transplant glomerulopathy), immunohistologic (C4d in peritubular capillaries), and serologic (circulating DSA) evidence for a definitive diagnosis of ABMR. Still, like other Banff classifications, the 2001/2007 schema for renal ABMR is a working classification subject to revision based on new data. Increasing evidence for C4d-negative ABMR and antibody-mediated arterial lesions led to the development of a consensus at the 2013 Banff Conference for updating the schema to include these lesions. Definitions and thresholds for glomerulitis and chronic glomerulopathy were also revised to improve interobserver agreement and correlation with clinical, molecular, and serologic data.
Summary: From a consensus reached at the 2013 Banff Conference, an updated schema for diagnosis of acute/active and chronic, active ABMR has been developed that accounts for recent data supporting the existence of C4d-negative ABMR and antibody-mediated intimal arteritis.