Organogenesis for kidney regenerationYokote, Shinya; Yokoo, TakashiCurrent Opinion in Organ Transplantation: April 2013 - Volume 18 - Issue 2 - p 186–190 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0b013e32835f070d ORGANOGENESIS AND ORGAN REGENERATION AND REPAIR AFTER TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Jeffrey L. Platt Abstract Author Information Abstract Purpose of review: The kidney has an elaborate and complicated structure comprising several cell types. Damage or destruction of the kidney thus necessitates reconstruction of all the component cell types to regenerate a functional three-dimensional renal structure. Therefore, despite all the recent advances in our understanding and technical approaches to stem cell and developmental biology, the anatomical complexity of the renal system makes de-novo kidney regeneration the most difficult challenge for organ regenerative therapy. Recent findings: To build a transplantable neo-kidney, some investigators propose using organogenesis. We suggest the metanephros of the developing kidney and blastocyst complementation can potentially generate a whole kidney with the required three-dimensional structure and renal function to produce urine and erythropoietin. In addition, some researchers are investigating the in-vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into mature renal cells for in-vivo use. Summary: We review the current challenges to making a transplantable neo-kidney using stem cells. Author Information Project Laboratory for Kidney Regeneration, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of DNA Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Correspondence to Takashi Yokoo, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan. Tel: +81 3 3433 1111; fax: +81 3 3433 4297; e-mail: email@example.com © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.