Osteoporosis: fracture epidemiology update 2016Cauley, Jane A.Current Opinion in Rheumatology: March 2017 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p 150–156 doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000365 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND HEALTH-RELATED SERVICES: Edited by Kenneth Saag Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on osteoporosis epidemiology. The focus is on fractures because fractures are the most important clinical consequence of osteoporosis. Studies published over the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these new findings is discussed. Recent findings: Important research in 2015–2016 include analyses of screening and rescreening in younger women and older men, risk factors for hip fractures in older men, obesity and weight loss/gain, and risk of fracture. Several dietary factors, including adherence to a Mediterranean diet and a diet rich in protein, fruits, and vegetables and maintenance of physical function with increasing age represent modifiable nonpharmacologic risk factors that improve bone health. Sarcopenia may have a more important role in fracture in men than women. Important biomarkers for fracture include low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hemoglobin A1c. Summary: Updated literature on fracture epidemiology have identified important risk factors for fracture. Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Correspondence to Dr Jane A. Cauley, DrPH, Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Crabtree A510, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Tel: +1 412 624 3057; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.