Purpose of review: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is of increasing global concern. One of the hardest hit regions is southern Africa. This study focuses on a concise update on recently published developments in the field.
Recent findings: There is mounting evidence from high-coprevalence areas that the TB and HIV pandemics must be viewed as an entity and tackled together. In that context, it has become clear that a shift may be required from standard hospital-based models of care towards community-based approaches. Innovative rapid diagnostics to detect TB drug resistance suitable for the use in resource-poor settings and novel drugs effective against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are currently developed.
Summary: In order to allow for a maximum impact of novel interventions on the problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB, public health systems and existing TB programs must be strengthened significantly.