Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: a review of recent researchFuss, Johannesa; Auer, Matthias K.b; Briken, PeeraCurrent Opinion in Psychiatry: November 2015 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 430–434 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000203 SEXUAL DISORDERS: Edited by Antonio Jose Pacheco Palha Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: With the advent of medical treatments such as puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones in gender dysphoric minors, there has been a debate around questions of gender identity and brain development. This review aimed to identify recent empirical studies that addressed this controversial topic. Recent findings: Epidemiological data from several countries indicate that gender dysphoria in children and adolescents is far more common than initially anticipated. This is in line with the currently observed steady increase in referrals to gender clinics. Minors with gender dysphoria are a vulnerable population as they may face a high psychopathological burden. Recently published data on the long-term outcome of puberty suppression and subsequent hormonal and surgical treatment indicate that young people with gender dysphoria may benefit substantially with regard to psychosocial outcomes. Brain development studied by neuroimaging methods seems not to be disturbed by puberty suppression. Summary: The first reports about long-term outcome in adolescents having undergone puberty suppression have shown promising results. However, in a substantial part of gender dysphoric minors, puberty suppression is not indicated so far because of psychiatric comorbidity and long-term follow-up data from these patients are still scarce. aInstitute for Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg bNeuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Correspondence to Johannes Fuss, Institute for Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. Tel: +49 40 7410 57688; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.