Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to review the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHBLI) guidelines on screening and management of hyperlipidemia in children and to discuss the critics concerns regarding universal screening.
Recent findings: Data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has shown favorable trends in serum lipid levels among children and adolescents aged 6–19 years between 1988–1994 and 2007–2010. Mean total cholesterol (TC) decreased from 165 to 160 mg/dl, and the prevalence of elevated TC decreased from 11.3 to 8.1%. However, between 2007 and 2010, approximately 20% of children aged 9–11 years had either low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or high non-HDL-C This warrants additional evaluation as per the NHBLI guidelines.
Summary: The NHBLI guidelines present physicians with a balanced perspective for screening and managing hyperlipidemia in children. These guidelines provide a schematic approach that helps primary care physicians to make treatment decisions. The hope is that this will lead to decreased healthcare system expense and overall improved health through early identification and intervention.