Purpose of review
Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTCs) comprise a small subset of heterogeneous thyroid tumors, occupying an intermediate area between well differentiated follicular or papillary carcinoma and anaplastic carcinomas, from both a histopathogenetic and a clinical point of view. PDTCs are more aggressive than the well differentiated, but less aggressive than the anaplastic thyroid cancers. They have a distinct biological behavior, and the classification of these tumors into a separate group appears justified.
The criteria used to diagnose PDTC have been an area of controversy. The multiple definitions of PDTC make the literature difficult to interpret. No clinical features can accurately diagnose PDTCs. Thus, the results of histocytology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics tests aid in diagnosis. Given the aggressiveness of PDTCs, with increased recurrence and decreased survival rates, a multimodality treatment approach is required.
We conducted a comprehensive review of the current diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the management of patients with PDTCs. The present article aims to review the various aspects of this tumor type, from morphology to immunohistochemistry, and molecular abnormalities from a practical and daily practice-oriented point of view.