Botulinum toxin is becoming a useful therapeutic toll for the treatment of many diseases in several disciplines. Following its application for regional movement disorders, such as blepharospasm, strabismus, and spasmodic torticollis, this agent is now being used for the treatment of certain pain syndromes and in facial cosmetic applications. Despite the proliferation in use, issues involving the pharmocology of materials and bioeffects that are important to this therapy are only partially understood. In this review, some recent published literature on newer applications and significant issues pertinent to this important technology are outlined.
Assistant Professor and Associate Surgeon, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Correspondence to: Gary Borodic, MD, 1261 Furnace Brook Parkway, Ste. 15, Quincy, MA 02169, USA.