Purpose of review: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in the western world. Two clinicopathological subtypes are recognized: type I (endometrioid) and type II (nonendometrioid) carcinomas. This review describes the molecular alterations in endometrial cancer and how this knowledge is leading to the development of novel treatments in this area.
Recent findings: Molecularly targeted agents have entered clinical trials in endometrial cancer. So far, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and antiangiogenic agents appear promising and are being pursued further in addition to other targeted approaches.
Summary: The clinicopathological and molecular heterogeneity of endometrial cancer needs to be taken into account in the design of future clinical trials as well as the incorporation of robust biomarkers for the success of therapeutic strategies in endometrial cancer.