Recent advances in systemic therapy for advanced endometrial cancerTsoref, Daliah; Oza, Amit M.Current Opinion in Oncology: September 2011 - Volume 23 - Issue 5 - p 494–500 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e328348840a Gynecologic cancer: Edited by Martin Gore Abstract Author Information Purpose of review Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic cancer in the western world. Systemic treatments for advanced disease have traditionally included hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. Responses to treatment are short-lived and advanced-stage disease remains incurable. Recent research has focused on optimizing chemotherapy regimens, the development of alternative hormonal therapy strategies and the introduction of targeted therapies. The most recent developments in these areas will be reviewed here. Recent findings Phase III trials continue to focus on the optimization of combination chemotherapy regimens. The elucidation of a hormonal pathway central to the control of oestrogen-stimulated cancer growth has led to the development of a new class of hormonal agents currently undergoing evaluation in the clinical trial setting. Increasing understanding of the molecular basis for malignant transformation continues to provide rationale for the development of many targeted therapies. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition, in particular, offers further encouraging results in this context. Summary The development of new hormone treatments and effective targeted therapies will provide new opportunities to improve therapy for women with advanced endometrial cancer. Optimization of therapy will require an approach to personalized therapy in order to guide choice and sequence of therapy and improve survival and quality of life. Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Correspondence to Amit M. Oza, Princess Margaret Hospital, Bras Family Drug Development Program, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, Canada Tel: +1 416 946 2818; fax: +1 416 946 4467; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.