Update: human papillomavirus infection remains highly prevalent and persistent among HIV-infected individualsKojic, Erna Milunka; Cu-Uvin, SusanCurrent Opinion in Oncology: September 2007 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 464–469 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3282c8c84c Cancer in AIDS Abstract Author Information Purpose of review Human papillomavirus infections and human papillomavirus-associated anogenital tumors are more prevalent in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. This review focuses on recent developments related to human papillomavirus burden in HIV-infected individuals; anogenital human papillomavirus types and type-specific differences in the natural history of human papillomavirus infections; the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus infection; and novel human papillomavirus therapeutic interventions. Recent findings There is a paucity of recent data on the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus infection and its related anogenital abnormalities/cancer. Review articles on the molecular biology of human papillomavirus in HIV infection outline why, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy, anogenital tumors may continue to increase in this population. Studies continue to confirm the high prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and to define the different human papillomavirus types correlated with anogenital cytologic abnormalities, an important area in light of the development of an effective type-specific human papillomavirus vaccine. Summary Anogenital human papillomavirus infection remains highly prevalent and persistent in HIV-infected individuals. HIV is associated with a wide diversity of human papillomavirus types and a high prevalence of anogenital cytologic abnormalities. The incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus-related cancers remains high in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, raising concerns of human papillomavirus infections as a rising health burden among HIV-infected individuals. Interventions aimed at preventing human papillomavirus infections with vaccinations need to be evaluated in HIV-infected individuals. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Miriam Hospital, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA Correspondence to Erna Milunka Kojic, MD, Department of Medicine, The Miriam Hospital, 164, Summit Avenue, Providence, RI 02906, USA Tel: +1 401 793 5961; fax: +1 401 793 4779; e-mail: ekojic@Lifespan.org © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.