Purpose of review: Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has changed. Early in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, epidemiologic studies showed that HIV-infected patients were at higher risk for developing specific AIDS-defining malignancies. More recent studies linking HIV/AIDS databases to cancer registries have shown that HIV-infected patients are also at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining malignancies. We review the most recent data regarding clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment outcomes for these non-AIDS-defining malignancies.
Recent findings: Recent large cohort studies linking HIV/AIDS databases to cancer registries have shown that HIV-infected patients are also at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Besides anal cancer and Hodgkin disease, the cohort studies have identified other malignancies that appear to occur at a higher rate in the HIV-infected population as compared with the general population. These malignancies include lung cancer, skin cancer, germ cell tumors, leiomyosarcomas, cancers of the head and neck, conjunctival cancer, multiple myeloma, and leukemias.
Summary: As the epidemiology of non-AIDS-defining malignancies continues to evolve, it is unclear whether the appropriate treatments and outcomes for these or other malignancies are changed for HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.