Purpose of review
To discuss the recent developments in the utility of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the context of female infertility.
AMH measurements have entered the clinical practice in counseling of women before in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. AMH measurements can predict both poor and hyperresponse, and can enable clinicians to individualize the treatment strategies. In natural conception, AMH is a good predictor of age at menopause, but it is unclear whether AMH correlates with the fecund ability in the normal population. AMH has also proven its utility in the assessment of ovarian damage due to gonadotoxic treatment or ovarian surgery. Lastly, AMH might assist in the initial diagnosis of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, as high levels of AMH are suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome and seem to correlate with the severity of the syndrome.
AMH is a glycoprotein secreted by the granulosa cells of small growing follicles and indirectly reflects the primordial follicle pool. The ovaries contain a limited number of primordial follicles and their depletion marks the menopause. Thus, the remaining primordial follicle pool is referred to as the ovarian reserve. The clearest data for the clinical utility of AMH is in the context of IVF. The support for other indications is weaker, but rapidly increasing.