This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report.
Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency.
Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.
Diane Newman, DNP ANP-BC, Adjunct Associate Professor of Urology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Co-Director, Penn Center for Continence and Pelvic Health Division of Urology, Penn Medicine Linda Cardozo, Urogynaecology Department, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Correspondence to Professor Karl-Dietrich Sievert, MD, PhD, FACS, FRCS, Eberhard-Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Tel: +49 7071 298 6611; fax: +49 7071 29 5092; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org