Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy has been described as an office procedure that is particularly suitable for the diagnosis of endometriosis and adhesions. It is recommended as a first line procedure in patients with infertility. The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia or sedation in an office setting. The abdominal distension is achieved by transvaginal instillation of warm saline using a combined Veress needle-trocar system. The exploration under fluid allows the inspection of the tubo-ovarian structures in their natural position and the easy identification of endometriotic lesions and adhesions in the posterior pelvis. The limitation of the inspection to the posterior pelvis is not a major problem for the diagnosis of endometriosis because exclusively anterior pelvis endometriosis is rare and of doubtful significance in infertility. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy can be performed in the office setting in combination with minihysteroscopy, tubal patency test and salpingoscopy, offering major advantages for the diagnosis of pelvic disease in patients with infertility.