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Current Opinion in Lipidology:
doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e328350a425
GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Edited by Robert Hegele

Lipid-based carriers of microRNAs and intercellular communication

Vickers, Kasey C.; Remaley, Alan T.

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Abstract

Purpose of review: Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are uniquely stable in plasma, and the levels of specific circulating miRNAs can differ with disease. Extracellular miRNAs are associated with lipid-based carriers and lipid-free proteins. miRNAs can be transferred from cell-to-cell by lipid-based carriers and affect gene expression. This review summarizes recent studies that demonstrate the transfer of miRNA between cells and their potential role in intercellular communication.

Recent findings: Microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, lipoproteins, and large microparticles contain miRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are transferred between dendritic cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and adipocytes in lipid-based carriers. miRNAs are also transferred from T cells to antigen-presenting cells, from stem cells to endothelial cells and fibroblasts, from macrophages to breast cancer cells, and from epithelial cells to hepatocytes in lipid-based carriers. The cellular export of miRNAs in lipid-based carriers is regulated by the ceramide pathway, and the delivery of lipid-associated miRNAs to recipient cells is achieved by various routes, including endocytotic uptake, membrane-fusion, and scavenger receptors.

Summary: Cellular miRNAs are exported in and to lipid-based carriers (vesicles and lipoprotein particles) and transferred to recipient cells with gene expression changes as intercellular communication.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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