Bile acid sequestrants: more than simple resinsOut, Carolien; Groen, Albert K.; Brufau, GemmaCurrent Opinion in Lipidology: February 2012 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p 43–55 doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32834f0ef3 NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Paul Nestel and Ronald P. Mensink Abstract Author Information Purpose of review Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The last decade, bile acids are emerging as integrated regulators of metabolism via induction of various signal transduction pathways. Consequently, BAS treatment may exert unexpected side-effects. We discuss a selection of recently published studies that evaluated BAS in several metabolic diseases. Recent findings Recently, an increasing body of evidence has shown that BAS in addition to ameliorating hypercholesterolemia are also effective in improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, although the mechanism is not completely understood. Furthermore, some reports suggested using these compounds to modulate energy expenditure. Many of these effects have been related to the local effects of BAS in the intestine by directly binding bile acids in the intestine or indirectly by interfering with signaling processes. Summary A substantial effort is being made by researchers to fully define the mechanism by which BAS improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A new challenge will be to confirm in clinical trials the recent discoveries coming from animal experiments suggesting a role for bile acids in energy metabolism. aCenter for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Correspondence to Professor, Dr Albert K. Groen, Departments of Pediatrics/Laboratory Medicine, Room Y2-145, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: A.K.Groen@med.umcg.nl Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.