Management of Trypanosoma cruzi coinfection in HIV-positive individuals outside endemic areasPérez-Molina, José A.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2014 - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - p 9–15 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000023 HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David Dockrell Abstract Author Information Purpose of the review: Chagas disease has spread beyond the geographical barriers of the American continent in the past decade. Consequently, physicians treating HIV-infected patients in nonendemic countries have to face an opportunistic infection they have little experience with. This review examines the literature on Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients, with special emphasis on recent findings. Recent findings: Although infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is a severe opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, awareness of this parasitosis in nonendemic countries remains low. Deeply immunosuppressed patients with chronic infection can develop reactivations, which can be very severe and are associated with high mortality. Reactivations mostly affect the central nervous system, followed by the heart, and diagnosis is based on the direct detection of the parasite or histology. There is no reliable method of predicting reactivations. Treatment is based on benzimidazoles, although neither the appropriate treatment schedule nor the need for secondary prophylaxis has been clearly established. Antiretroviral therapy seems to play a fundamental role in the prevention of reactivations and control of relapses; however, more information is needed. Summary: Many aspects of T. cruzi–HIV coinfection remain uncertain. Until new data covering the current gaps become available, early diagnosis and prompt antiretroviral therapy seem to be fundamental for avoiding reactivations and improving late visceral involvement. Correspondence to José A. Pérez-Molina, Tropical Medicine Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Ramón y Cajal – IRYCIS, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9,1, Madrid 28034, Spain. Tel: +34 913368108; e-mail: email@example.com © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.