Purpose of review: Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is very frequent in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients. Moreover, data are provided on penile and oral HPV-associated diseases, for which only limited information is available in the literature.
Recent findings: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time. Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population. Individuals with abnormal cytology should undergo high-resolution anoscopy to appropriately identify and treat dysplastic lesions. Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons. Penile and oral HPV-associated diseases seem to be more frequent in HIV-positive men than reported for HIV-negative heterosexual men.
Summary: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men. More study is required to get better insights into the natural history of penile and oral HPV-associated benign and malignant lesions.