Purpose of review: This review will highlight some of the recent advances in genome engineering with applications for both clinical and basic science investigations of HIV-1.
Recent findings: Over the last year, the field of HIV cure research has seen major breakthroughs with the success of the first phase I clinical trial involving gene editing of CCR5 in patient-derived CD4+ T cells. This first human use of gene-editing technology was accomplished using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). Zinc finger nucleases and the advent of additional tools for genome engineering, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, have made gene editing remarkably simple and affordable. Here we will discuss the different gene-editing technologies, the use of gene editing in HIV research over the past year, and potential applications of gene editing for both in-vitro and in-vivo studies.
Summary: Genome-engineering technologies have rapidly progressed over the past few years such that these systems can be easily applied in any laboratory for a variety of purposes. For HIV-1, upcoming clinical trials will determine if gene editing can provide the long-awaited functional cure. In addition, manipulation of host genomes, whether in vivo or in vitro, can facilitate development of better animal models and culture methods for studying HIV-1 transmission, pathogenesis, and virus–host interactions.
Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Correspondence to Paul Bates, Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org