HIV vaccine research and discovery in the nonhuman primates model: a unified theory in acquisition prevention and control of SIV infectionLynch, Rebecca M.; Yamamoto, Takuya; McDermott, Adrian B.Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS: July 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 4 - p 288–294 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e328361cfe8 ANIMAL MODELS: Edited by Louis J. Picker and Dan H. Barouch Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: Here we highlight the latest advances in HIV vaccine concepts that will expand our knowledge on how to elicit effective acquisition-prevention and/or control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. Recent findings: In the context of the promising analyses from the RV144 Thai Trial and the effective control of SIV replication exerted by rhCMV-(SIV) elicited EM CD8 T cells, the HIV field has recently shifted toward vaccine concepts that combine protection from acquisition with effective control of SIV replication. Current studies in the NHP model have demonstrated the efficacy of HIV-neutralizing antibodies via passive transfer, the potential importance of the CD4 Tfh subset, the ability to effectively model the RV144 vaccine trial and the capacity of an Ad26 prime and modified vaccinia Ankara virus boost to elicit Env-specific antibody and cellular responses that both limit acquisition and control heterologous SIVmac251 challenge. Summary: The latest work in the NHP model suggests that the next generation HIV-1 vaccines should aim to provoke a comprehensive adaptive immune response for both prevention of SIV acquisition as well as control of replication in breakthrough infection. Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Adrian B. McDermott, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, 40 Convent Dr, Rm 3508, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Tel: +1 301 443 9667; e-mail: email@example.com © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.