Proteomics as a novel HIV immune monitoring toolStein, Derek R.a; Burgener, Adama; Ball, Terry Blakea,b,c,dCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: March 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 2 - p 140–146 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32835d3271 NEW ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGICAL AND VIROLOGICAL MONITORING: Edited by Alan L. Landay and Tae-Wook Chun Abstract Author Information Purpose of review There is still a fundamental lack of understanding of what protected vaccinee's in the moderately successful RV144 Thailand trial. It is clear that better tools are needed to identify and study correlates of protection and immune responses to vaccine challenge. Quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved considerably to become a useful tool in biomarker discovery; however, until recently it has been scarcely used to define host responses to HIV exposure and/or viral infection. In this review we discuss current quantitative MS techniques, their application in current HIV studies as well as novel approaches that could be used to better examine innate or adaptive immune responses in HIV vaccine or microbicide trials. Recent findings Several recently published studies have allowed researchers to utilize quantitative MS as part of a systems biology approach to better understand the HIV-affected host's interaction with HIV and/or vaccine challenge. Proteomics has shown it can play a major role in studies to demonstrate insight into HIV replication, early stages of pathogenesis, and identify potential correlates of mucosal protection. Summary Novel advances in quantitative proteomic techniques are allowing the opportunity to profile and evaluate HIV specific innate and adaptive immune responses, and will increase our understanding of HIV pathogenesis. aUniversity of Manitoba, Department of Medical Microbiology bImmunology, Winnipeg cNational HIV and Retrovirology Laboratories, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada dUniversity of Nairobi, Department of Medical Microbiology, Nairobi, Kenya Correspondence to Terry Blake Ball, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St., Winnipeg, MB R3E 3R2, Canada. Tel: +1 204 272 3148; fax: +1 204 298 3926; e-mail: email@example.com © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.