Purpose of review: Although CCR5 and CXCR4 are the predominant coreceptors associated with HIV-1 entry, many more coreceptors can support either infection or viral capture and have been associated with transmission and disease progression. Here, we describe the most recent findings pertinent to which receptors are involved with HIV-1 infection and the proposed consequences.
Recent findings: CCR5 or CXCR4 using HIV-1 can differentially utilize their respective coreceptors and influence which cell types are infected. Many alternate coreceptors have been described which expands the pool of cells within which HIV-1 can replicate or reside. A large number of C-type lectins have been described which capture HIV-1 and present the virus to CD4+ T cells which can also be considered as receptors involved with transmission or disease course. The molecular mechanism through which gp120 binds host lectins, such as altered N-linked glycosylation profiling, provides further mechanisms influencing HIV-1 capture and transfer. Genetic polymorphisms within the alternative coreceptors have now been shown to associate with disease, implying they can play a significant role in HIV-1 disease.
Summary: We have summarized the recent findings concerning the multitude of receptors and coreceptors which can interact with HIV-1 and have discussed the consequences for either HIV-1 transmission or disease progression.