Coreceptor usage in different reservoirsSoulie, Cathia; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-GenevièveCurrent Opinion in HIV & AIDS: September 2012 - Volume 7 - Issue 5 - p 450–455 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e328356e9c2 VIRAL TROPISM: Edited by Annemarie M.J. Wensing and Rolf Kaiser Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: HIV-1 infects tissue macrophages, microglia and other mononuclear phagocytes which represent an important cellular reservoir for viral replication and persistence in macrophage-rich tissue. This compartmentalization allows the virus to exist as genetically distinct quasi-species that can have capacities to use different coreceptors for cell entry. This review assesses the tropism of HIV-1 in different human compartments. Recent findings: The majority of HIV infection occurs with R5-tropic viruses probably due to the selective expression of the R5 cell-surface protein on the target cells in the genital muscosa. There is a large concordance of tropism use between blood cell-associated proviral DNA and RNA plasma viruses, allowing the use of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonists in patients who have undetectable viral load and for whom HIV tropism was determined in DNA. Most of HIV strains in central nervous system remain R5-tropic allowing the use of CCR5 antagonists. Summary: There are many clinical situations in which the use of CCR5 antagonists can be used and several ways to determine HIV tropism in most of the compartments. Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, INSERM, AP-HP, Groupe hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris, France Correspondence to Professor Vincent Calvez, Laboratoire de Virologie-CERVI, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière 45-83 Bd de l’hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Tel: +33 1 42 17 74 01; fax: +33 1 42 17 74 11; e-mail: email@example.com © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.