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Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS:
doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e3283521144
CO-INFECTION OF POVERTY RELATED DISEASES WITH WORMS: Edited by Alison Elliott and Maria Yazdanbakhsh

Effects of helminths and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on HIV-1: a cellular immunological perspective

Mouser, Emily E.I.M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

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Abstract

Purpose of review: In many regions of the world, a high prevalence of HIV-1, helminthic and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections can be found. Here, we summarize the types of immune responses induced and/or modulated by these pathogens and the consequences for HIV-1 disease.

Recent findings: Helminths predominantly induce strong T helper (Th) 2 cellular responses which are downregulated in chronic disease. The anatomical niche populated by helminths plays a key factor in the effect these parasites have on HIV-1 transmission and subsequent replication. Gut-associated helminths have been found to increase HIV-1 transmission via the lesions they provide. In spite of this, the many immune modulatory molecules secreted by the parasites may inhibit or slow HIV-1 infection. In contrast, Mtb is mainly restricted to the lung and the Mtb-specific Th cells induced are highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection and replication. Antigens from both pathogens have immunomodulatory activity that can skew cellular immune responses in specific directions.

Summary: The effect of helminths and Mtb on modulating immune responses is varied and complex with both their location and phenotype potentially influencing HIV-1 disease. These pathogens have evolved a complex array of molecules which have the capacity to modulate immunity and preserve pathogen survival.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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