Purpose of review: This review describes important aspects of the research agenda that have emerged as a result of the recent findings of the HIV transmission study in sero-discordant couples conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) and referred to as HPTN 052.
Recent findings: The HPTN 052 study provided strong evidence that antiretroviral treatment (ART), given to HIV-infected partners with the purpose of achieving and maintaining full virologic suppression, could prevent linked HIV transmission in sero-discordant couples. These findings have implications in all future combination prevention strategies.
Summary: The HPTN 052 study demonstrated that sustained virus suppression, below detectable levels, can prevent HIV transmission in sero-discordant couples. As a result of this study, we have now identified ART as a key component for all combination prevention strategies. Additionally, this study demonstrates that HIV testing is the single door of entry for individualized HIV treatment and prevention. The challenge now is to create a robust, seamless linkage and retention system so that the vision of HIV treatment as prevention can be realized. Such a system will maximize both the treatment and the prevention benefits of ART. The research agenda outlined here describes the need to extend this finding to areas of implementation science, such as the development of simpler, easier to use point-of-care assays for virus load, and improved, better tolerated, more durable combinations and formulations of antiretroviral drugs.