Purpose of review: HIV-infected cells persisting in the face of highly active antiretroviral therapy are arguably the greatest hurdle to eradication of the virus from the body. Complementary strategies aimed at selective killing of infected cells are described.
Recent findings: Pioneered by research in the cancer field, various approaches are under development for selective killing of HIV-infected cells. These include targeted cytotoxic proteins, adoptive cell therapy, cytocidal virotherapy, and targeted nonbiological drug carriers.
Summary: These developmental efforts may provide a critical complement to antiretroviral therapy in efforts to achieve HIV eradication, or a ‘functional cure’ whereby therapy can be stopped without viral rebound.